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HOME > AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES > AGROFORESTRY
Crop Production and Tillage

Crop Production And Tillage

ISBN : 9788177543025
Edition : 01
Year : 2007
Author : Dr. Panda SC
Publisher : Agrobios (India)
Language : English
MRP : 795.00
In Stock
Additional Information
Book Type :
TEXT-CUM-REFERENCES BOOK
Binding
Hard Bond
No Of Pages
384
Weight
600 Gms
Book Size
DEMY (216 x 138 mm)
Associated Subjects:
Agroforestry , Agronomy , Forestry , Gardening , Horticulture ,

Speedy development of agriculture is vital to the progress of our country. For securing maximum crop production, the best use of the available land has to be made and the latest methods of crop husbandry put into practice. But this depends on the availability of scientific information and guidance on all aspects of agriculture in an easily digestible form.

With world population doubling every four decades, the water resources of the world are becoming one of its most important assets. Water is essential for human consumption and sanitation, for the production of many industrial goods and for the production of food and fiber. Water is important means of transport in many parts of the world and a significant factor in recreation. Even a valuable resource can be a hazard and excessive water like floods cause substantial damage and loss of life throughout the world. Water is unequally distributed about the earth. In his use of this resource, man pollutes much of the available fresh water and degrades it so that it is unfit for any other use. In agriculture, water plays the major role for successful crop production. Without water either through precipitation or irrigation, there may not be plant growth, since it is essential for the maintenance of turgidity, absorption of nutrients and the metabolic process of the plants.

With the explosive increase in world population, there is increasing pressure on the dry lands, which with their semiarid fringes, constitutes fully one-third of the land areas of the globe. This increased pressure applies both to the area with primitive agriculture and low standard of living as in the arid regions of Asia and North

 Africa and to technologically advanced regions with a high standard of living, such as the western parts of the United States. The arid parts of a great number of countries are now usually vast empty areas. A large proportion is desert, and its contribution to food production is minimal. Other vast areas on the fringes of the deserts in North Africa and Asia, with rainfall that is just sufficient or even adequate to grow a single adapted crop during the few months of a year are cultivated with poor yielding crops. In other vast areas with similar climatic conditions-in Russia, North America and Australia, though cultivation is most modern, the yields are also low in comparison with those that are common in the regions of temperate climate. Yet the combination of high insolation, favourable temperature and long growing periods of the arid and semiarid regions can be profitably used for better crop production if only an adequate supply of water can be provided.

Irrigated agriculture permits greater control of production factors than any other system of farming. Nature is often bountiful but she is not always dependable. The farmers who produce consistently higher yields are those who leave the fewest production factors to chance. Superior varieties of crops have been developed, machinery has been devised to till the soil and control the weeds, mineral and organic fertilizers have been produced to supplement soil reserves, insects and diseases are being brought under control. In most areas, the great unpredictable and uncontrollable factor is the weather. With irrigation, it is even possible to do something about this. Where soil moisture is maintained near optimum, the maximum value can be obtained from other production factors.

Irrigated agriculture has developed most extensively in arid regions where natural precipitation is inadequate for the production of many crops. Many regions having relatively high annual rainfall may have period of droughts in which there is no crop production or in which crop yields are seriously reduced by lack of moisture. Irrigation is rapidly expanding in these areas. It is also increasing in sub-humid areas with 75 cm or more of rainfall where truck crops are produced.

Often irrigation in humid or sub-humid areas is supplemental irrigation. However, all irrigation is supplemental to natural rainfall, and the quantity of irrigation water needed is inversely proportional to precipitation. No definite line can be drawn between areas where irrigation is essential and areas where it is not needed. While the importance of irrigation in tropical and sub-humid climate is recognized, the full problems of irrigated agriculture arise only in arid and semiarid conditions where agriculture demands on careful management of soil and water.

Studies on early history of irrigation indicate that irrigation has been practiced for last 4000 years in India, Egypt and China. It also indicated that due to improper use of water, the soil finally become water logged, salts accumulated and the land became unproductive.

In India, the holdings are generally small, the average farmer is poor, and the draft cattle are also small sized and ill fed. Taking these factors into consideration, certain principles have been taken up to develop and manufacture the implements and machinery for timely operation for crop production.


  1. Introduction
  2. Importance of Agriculture
  3. Factors Affecting Crop Production
  4. Systems of Crop Production
  5. Tillage and Tillage Operations
  6. Effect of Tillage
  7. Tillage and Crop Production
  8. Agricultural Implements and Machinery
  9. Types of Tillage Operations
  10. Method of Tillage
  11. Management Practices
  12. Future Guide Line and Conclusion
  13. References


Dr. Panda SC

Dr. S. C. Panda, born on 1.11.1939 at Kantipur, under Baisinga P.S. in the district of Mayurbhanj, Orissa is graduated in Agriculture from Utkal University in 1962, post graduated from OUAT, Bhubaneswar in 1965 and Ph.D. from Utkal University in 1972. He has involved in various research fields such as Rice Research, Water Management Research, Cropping System Research, Plastic use in Agriculture, research on weather study on rice based cropping system and Weed Research as Research Scholar, Research Scientist, Chief Scientist (Water Management), Associate Director of Research, Professor and Head, Agronomy, Chief Agronomist (CSR) and Dean (Post Graduate Faculty cum Director Residential Instruction), Dean of Research and Dean, College of Agriculture from 1962. He has also served as Regional Coordinator, NDP (Eastern Region of India) in the year 1987 to 88. He also worked as Programme Associate (Ford Foundation) in Multiple Cropping Research at IARI, New Delhi and RRS (OUAT), Chiplima, Sambalpur from 1969 to 1971. He has been working as Emeritus Scientist under ICAR operating at OUAT, Bhubaneswar after retirement from Dean, College of Agriculture, Bhubaneswar on October 31, 1999.

He has over three decades of experience in teaching, research, rural development and agricultural extension. Dr. Panda has scientific papers on numerous International and National conferences and has to his credit of more than 112 numbers of research papers published in various International and National journals. Also a widely accepted twenty one text books entitled,  Principles and Practices of Water Management,  Cropping and Farming Systems,  Dry land Agriculture,  Agronomy,  Crop Management and Integrated Farming,  Soil Management and Organic Farming, Soil Water Conservation and Dry Farming, Crop Production and Tillage, Farm Management and Agricultural Marketing,  Mechanization of Agriculture,  Soil Conservation and Fertility Management,  Post Harvest Technology and Farm Mechanization,  Rice Crop Science,  Maize Crop Science, Agrometeorology and Contingent Crop Planning,  Sustainable Food and Nutrition Security in National Economy,  Modern Concepts and Advanced Principles in Crop Production,  Contingent Planning for Disaster Management, Principles and Practices of Organic Farming ;  Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture  and  A Hand Book of Agriculture  aid value to his name. Under his guidance and supervision, fifty students of M. Sc. (Ag.) and ten students of Ph.D. have got their degrees. Presently he is working as Consultant, World Bank and Sutra Consulting, Bhubaneswar.


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